What is Deuteranopia?
Deuteranopia is a type of red-green color deficiency. Red-green color blindness is the most common type and occurs in about 1 in 12 males and 1 out of 200 women. Individuals with deuteranopia are lacking the M photopigment, but it is replaced by the L photopigment. Those with deuteranopia see things with more red color. Deuteranopia does not allow for the perception of green light.
- Deuteranopia is a red-green color deficiency that is more common in males.
- Those with deuteranopia are unable to see green.
- Most individuals with deuteranopia may not know they have it until they complete an Ishihara Color Test for an eye doctor.
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Red-green color vision deficiencies occur when there are defects with the OPN1LW (red pigment cone) and OPN1MW (green pigment) genes. Protanopia is also a red-green deficiency that results from defects in the red cone pigments.
Risk Factors for Deuteranopia
Deuteranopia is typically caused by a mutation in the recessive genes in the X chromosome. It is most often congenital.
Sometimes, it can be acquired, and the possible causes may include retinal diseases, optic nerve disorders, age-related macular degeneration, dementia, side effects from antimalarial drugs, some prescription medications taken for high blood pressure, mental health disorders, autoimmune diseases, and infection, and exposure to organic solvents like fertilizers.
Deuteranopia can be so mild, one may not know they have it. Symptoms include confusing the colors of red and green.
An Ishihara Color Test can be used to diagnose deuteranopia. The Ishihara Color Test requires the patient to look at a series of dots that make up a number. Individuals with normal vision will be able to see the dots, but the number will be invisible or difficult for those with deuteranopia.
There is no cure for deuteranopia, but glasses with specialty lenses or contact lenses may help with seeing colors more easily.